Government » West African Foreign Policy » Nigeria's Foreign Policy

Nigeria and Africa

Nigeria and Africa

CountryFormal Relations BeganNotes
Algeria 
  • Algeria has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Algiers.
Angola 

Angolan-Nigerian relations are primarily based on their roles as oil exporting nations. Both are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, the African Union and other multilateral organizations.

The President of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari, sent a message to his Angolan counterpart, José Eduardo dos Santos, in which he manifested his interest in keeping and strengthening the excellent relations that exist between both countries, aiming at generating better benefits for the two peoples.

  • Angola has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Luanda.
Benin 
  • Benin has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Cotonou.
Burkina Faso 
  • Burkina Faso has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Ouagadougou.
Cameroon 

A long-standing border dispute with Cameroon over the potentially oil-rich Bakassi Peninsula was resolved by a 2002 decision by the International Court of Justice which granted Cameroon ownership of the region and the 2006 signing of the Greentree Agreement which led to the withdrawal of Nigerian troops from Bakassi in 2008 and complete administrative control being taken over by Cameroon in August 2013. Nigeria released about 150 Cameroonian prisoners of war in late 1998.

  • Cameroon has a high commission in Abuja and a consulate-general in Calabar.
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Yaoundé, a consulate-general in Douala and a consulate in Buea.
Chad 

Nigeria’s 1983 economic austerity campaign produced strains with neighbouring states, including Chad. Nigeria expelled several hundred thousand foreign workers, mostly from its oil industry, which faced drastic cuts as a result of declining world oil prices. At least 30,000 of those expelled were Chadians. Despite these strains, however, Nigerians had assisted in the halting process of achieving stability in Chad, and both nations reaffirmed their intention to maintain close ties.

  • Chad has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate in Maiduguri.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in N’Djamena.
Central African Republic 
  • Central African Republic has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Bangui.
Côte d’Ivoire 
  • Côte d’Ivoire has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Abidjan.
Democratic Republic of the Congo 
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Kinshasa.
Egypt 
  • Egypt has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Cairo.
Ethiopia 
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
Equatorial Guinea 
  • Equatorial Guinea has an embassy in Abuja and consulates in Calabar and Lagos.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Malabo and a consulate in Bata.
Gabon 
  • Gabon has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Libreville.
Ghana 

Ghana Nigerian relations have been both bitter and sweet. In 1969 numerous Nigerians were deported from Ghana. Relations in the 1970s were good. Ghana-Nigeria relations began on a sour note in the early period of PNDC rule. Tension rose immediately after the PNDC deposed Limann in 1981. In protest, Nigeria refused to continue much-needed oil supplies to Ghana. At the time, Ghana owed Nigeria about US$150 million for crude oil supplies and depended on Nigeria for about 90 percent of its petroleum needs. Nigeria’s expulsion of more than 1 million Ghanaian immigrants in early 1983, when Ghana was facing severe drought and economic problems, and of another 300,000 in early 1985 on short notice, further strained relations between the two countries.

In April 1988, a joint commission for cooperation was established between Ghana and Nigeria. A bloodless coup in August 1985 had brought Major General Ibrahim Babangida to power in Nigeria, and Rawlings took advantage of the change of administration to pay an official visit. The two leaders discussed a wide range of issues focusing on peace and prosperity within West Africa, bilateral trade, and the transition to democracy in both countries. In early January 1989, Babangida reciprocated with an official visit to Ghana, which the PNDC hailed as a watershed in Ghana-Nigeria relations.

Subsequent setbacks that Babangida initiated in the democratic transition process in Nigeria clearly disappointed Accra. Nonetheless, the political crisis that followed Babangida’s annulment of the results of the June 1993 Nigerian presidential election and Babangida’s resignation from the army and presidency two months later did not significantly alter the existing close relations between Ghana and Nigeria, two of the most important members of ECOWAS and the Commonwealth of Nations. After the takeover in November 1993 by General Sani Abacha as the new Nigerian head of state, Ghana and Nigeria continued to consult on economic, political, and security issues affecting the two countries and West Africa as a whole. Between early August 1994 when Rawlings became ECOWAS chairman and the end of the following October, the Ghanaian president visited Nigeria three times to discuss the peace process in Liberia and measures to restore democracy in that country.

Nigeria and Ghana today have a close relationship, and they collaborate on various issues. Ghana and Nigeria are both Commonwealth republics.

  • Ghana has a high commission in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Accra.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Guinea 
  • Guinea has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Conakry.
Kenya 
  • Kenya has a high commission in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Nairobi.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Libya 

Nigeria recalled its ambassador, Isa Aliyu Mohammed, to Libya on 18 March 2010.

The Nigerian foreign ministry stated that it was recalling Mohammed for “urgent negotiations” due to the “irresponsible utterances of Colonel Gaddafi”.

  • Libya has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Tripoli.
Madagascar 
  • Madagascar is accredited to Nigeria from its embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Nigeria is accredited to Madagascar from its high commission in Maputo, Mozambique.
Malawi 
  • Malawi is accredited to Nigeria from its embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Lilongwe.
Mali 
  • Mali has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Bamako.
Morocco 
  • Morocco has an embassy in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Rabat.
Namibia 
  • Namibia has a high commission in Abuja.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Windhoek.
Niger 

Nigeria maintains close relations with the Republic of Niger, in part because both nations share a large Hausa minority on each side of their 1500 km border. Hausa language and cultural ties are strong, but there is little interest in a pan-Hausa state.

  • Niger has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Kano.
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Niamey.
São Tomé and Príncipe 
  • Nigeria has an embassy in São Tomé.
  • São Tomé and Príncipe has an embassy in Abuja.
Senegal 
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Abuja.
South Africa 
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Pretoria and a consulate-general in Johannesburg.
  • South Africa has a high commission in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
Sudan 
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Abuja.
Tanzania 
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Dar-es-Salaam.
  • Tanzania has a high commission in Abuja.
Togo 
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Lomé.
  • Togo has an embassy in Abuja.
Zimbabwe 
  • Nigeria has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Abuja.

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