Chemistry » Thermochemistry » Enthalpy

Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances

Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances

Standard Thermodynamic Properties for Selected Substances
Substance\(\text{Δ}{H}_{f}^{°}\) (kJ mol)\(\text{Δ}{G}_{f}^{°}\) (kJ mol–1)\({S}_{298}^{°}\) (J K–1 mol–1)
aluminum
Al(s)0028.3
Al(g)324.4285.7164.54
Al3+(aq)–531–485–321.7
Al2O3(s)–1676–158250.92
AlF3(s)–1510.4–142566.5
AlCl3(s)–704.2–628.8110.67
AlCl3·6H2O(s)–2691.57–2269.40376.56
Al2S3(s)–724.0–492.4116.9
Al2(SO4)3(s)–3445.06–3506.61239.32
antimony
Sb(s)0045.69
Sb(g)262.34222.17180.16
Sb4O6(s)–1440.55–1268.17220.92
SbCl3(g)–313.8–301.2337.80
SbCl5(g)–394.34–334.29401.94
Sb2S3(s)–174.89–173.64182.00
SbCl3(s)–382.17–323.72184.10
SbOCl(s)–374.0
arsenic
As(s)0035.1
As(g)302.5261.0174.21
As4(g)143.992.4314
As4O6(s)–1313.94–1152.52214.22
As2O5(s)–924.87–782.41105.44
AsCl3(g)–261.50–248.95327.06
As2S3(s)–169.03–168.62163.59
AsH3(g)66.4468.93222.78
H3AsO4(s)–906.3
barium
Ba(s)0062.5
Ba(g)180146170.24
Ba2+(aq)–537.6–560.89.6
BaO(s)–548.0–520.372.1
BaCl2(s)–855.0–806.7123.7
BaSO4(s)–1473.2–1362.3132.2
beryllium
Be(s)009.50
Be(g)324.3286.6136.27
BeO(s)–609.4–580.113.8
bismuth
Bi(s)0056.74
Bi(g)207.1168.2187.00
Bi2O3(s)–573.88–493.7151.5
BiCl3(s)–379.07–315.06176.98
Bi2S3(s)–143.1–140.6200.4
boron
B(s)005.86
B(g)565.0521.0153.4
B2O3(s)–1273.5–1194.353.97
B2H6(g)36.487.6232.1
H3BO3(s)–1094.33–968.9288.83
BF3(g)–1136.0–1119.4254.4
BCl3(g)–403.8–388.7290.1
B3N3H6(l)–540.99–392.79199.58
HBO2(s)–794.25–723.4137.66
bromine
Br2(l)00152.23
Br2(g)30.913.142245.5
Br(g)111.8882.429175.0
Br(aq)–120.9–102.8280.71
BrF3(g)–255.60–229.45292.42
HBr(g)–36.3–53.43198.7
cadmium
Cd(s)0051.76
Cd(g)112.0177.41167.75
Cd2+(aq)–75.90–77.61–73.2
CdO(s)–258.2–228.454.8
CdCl2(s)–391.5–343.9115.3
CdSO4(s)–933.3–822.7123.0
CdS(s)–161.9–156.564.9
calcium
Ca(s)0041.6
Ca(g)178.2144.3154.88
Ca2+(aq)–542.96–553.04–55.2
CaO(s)–634.9–603.338.1
Ca(OH)2(s)–985.2–897.583.4
CaSO4(s)–1434.5–1322.0106.5
CaSO4·2H2O(s)–2022.63–1797.45194.14
CaCO3(s) (calcite)–1220.0–1081.4110.0
CaSO3·H2O(s)–1752.68–1555.19184.10
carbon
C(s) (graphite)005.740
C(s) (diamond)1.892.902.38
C(g)716.681671.2158.1
CO(g)–110.52–137.15197.7
CO2(g)–393.51–394.36213.8
CO32–(aq)–677.1–527.8–56.9
CH4(g)–74.6–50.5186.3
CH3OH(l)–239.2–166.6126.8
CH3OH(g)–201.0–162.3239.9
CCl4(l)–128.2–62.5214.4
CCl4(g)–95.7–58.2309.7
CHCl3(l)–134.1–73.7201.7
CHCl3(g)–103.14–70.34295.71
CS2(l)89.7065.27151.34
CS2(g)116.966.8238.0
C2H2(g)227.4209.2200.9
C2H4(g)52.468.4219.3
C2H6(g)–84.0–32.0229.2
CH3CO2H(l)–484.3–389.9159.8
CH3CO2H(g)–434.84–376.69282.50
C2H5OH(l)–277.6–174.8160.7
C2H5OH(g)–234.8–167.9281.6
HCO3(aq)–691.11–587.0695
C3H8(g)–103.8–23.4270.3
C6H6(g)82.927129.66269.2
C6H6(l)49.1124.50173.4
CH2Cl2(l)–124.2–63.2177.8
CH2Cl2(g)–95.4–65.90270.2
CH3Cl(g)–81.9–60.2234.6
C2H5Cl(l)–136.52–59.31190.79
C2H5Cl(g)–112.17–60.39276.00
C2N2(g)308.98297.36241.90
HCN(l)108.9125.0112.8
HCN(g)135.5124.7201.8
cesium
Cs+(aq)–248–282.0133
chlorine
Cl2(g)00223.1
Cl(g)121.3105.70165.2
Cl(aq)–167.2–131.256.5
ClF(g)–54.48–55.94217.78
ClF3(g)–158.99–118.83281.50
Cl2O(g)80.397.9266.2
Cl2O7(l)238.1
Cl2O7(g)272.0
HCl(g)–92.307–95.299186.9
HClO4(l)–40.58
chromium
Cr(s)0023.77
Cr(g)396.6351.8174.50
CrO42–(aq)–881.2–727.850.21
Cr2O72–(aq)–1490.3–1301.1261.9
Cr2O3(s)–1139.7–1058.181.2
CrO3(s)–589.5
(NH4)2Cr2O7(s)–1806.7
cobalt
Co(s)0030.0
Co2+(aq)–67.4–51.5–155
Co3+(aq)92134–305.0
CoO(s)–237.9–214.252.97
Co3O4(s)–910.02–794.98114.22
Co(NO3)2(s)–420.5
copper
Cu(s)0033.15
Cu(g)338.32298.58166.38
Cu+(aq)51.950.2–26
Cu2+(aq)64.7765.49–99.6
CuO(s)–157.3–129.742.63
Cu2O(s)–168.6–146.093.14
CuS(s)–53.1–53.666.5
Cu2S(s)–79.5–86.2120.9
CuSO4(s)–771.36–662.2109.2
Cu(NO3)2(s)–302.9
fluorine
F2(g)00202.8
F(g)79.462.3158.8
F(aq)–332.6–278.8–13.8
F2O(g)24.741.9247.43
HF(g)–273.3–275.4173.8
hydrogen
H2(g)00130.7
H(g)217.97203.26114.7
H+(aq)000
OH(aq)–230.0–157.2–10.75
H3O+(aq)–285.8 69.91
H2O(l)–285.83–237.170.0
H2O(g)–241.82–228.59188.8
H2O2(l)–187.78–120.35109.6
H2O2(g)–136.3–105.6232.7
HF(g)–273.3–275.4173.8
HCl(g)–92.307–95.299186.9
HBr(g)–36.3–53.43198.7
HI(g)26.481.70206.59
H2S(g)–20.6–33.4205.8
H2Se(g)29.715.9219.0
iodine
I2(s)00116.14
I2(g)62.43819.3260.7
I(g)106.8470.2180.8
I(aq)–55.19–51.5711.13
IF(g)95.65–118.49236.06
ICl(g)17.78–5.44247.44
IBr(g)40.843.72258.66
IF7(g)–943.91–818.39346.44
HI(g)26.481.70206.59
iron
Fe(s)0027.3
Fe(g)416.3370.7180.5
Fe2+(aq)–89.1–78.90–137.7
Fe3+(aq)–48.5–4.7–315.9
Fe2O3(s)–824.2–742.287.40
Fe3O4(s)–1118.4–1015.4146.4
Fe(CO)5(l)–774.04–705.42338.07
Fe(CO)5(g)–733.87–697.26445.18
FeCl2(s)–341.79–302.30117.95
FeCl3(s)–399.49–334.00142.3
FeO(s)–272.0–255.260.75
Fe(OH)2(s)–569.0–486.588.
Fe(OH)3(s)–823.0–696.5106.7
FeS(s)–100.0–100.460.29
Fe3C(s)25.1020.08104.60
lead
Pb(s)0064.81
Pb(g)195.2162.175.4
Pb2+(aq)–1.7–24.4310.5
PbO(s) (yellow)–217.32–187.8968.70
PbO(s) (red)–218.99–188.9366.5
Pb(OH)2(s)–515.9
PbS(s)–100.4–98.791.2
Pb(NO3)2(s)–451.9
PbO2(s)–277.4–217.368.6
PbCl2(s)–359.4–314.1136.0
lithium
Li(s)0029.1
Li(g)159.3126.6138.8
Li+(aq)–278.5–293.313.4
LiH(s)–90.5–68.320.0
Li(OH)(s)–487.5–441.542.8
LiF(s)–616.0–587.535.7
Li2CO3(s)–1216.04–1132.1990.17
magnesium
Mg2+(aq)–466.9–454.8–138.1
manganese
Mn(s)0032.0
Mn(g)280.7238.5173.7
Mn2+(aq)–220.8–228.1–73.6
MnO(s)–385.2–362.959.71
MnO2(s)–520.03–465.153.05
Mn2O3(s)–958.97–881.15110.46
Mn3O4(s)–1378.83–1283.23155.64
MnO4(aq)–541.4–447.2191.2
MnO42–(aq)–653.0–500.759
mercury
Hg(l)0075.9
Hg(g)61.431.8175.0
Hg2+(aq) 164.8 
Hg2+(aq)172.4153.984.5
HgO(s) (red)–90.83–58.570.29
HgO(s) (yellow)–90.46–58.4371.13
HgCl2(s)–224.3–178.6146.0
Hg2Cl2(s)–265.4–210.7191.6
HgS(s) (red)–58.16–50.682.4
HgS(s) (black)–53.56–47.7088.28
HgSO4(s)–707.51–594.130.00
nickel
Ni2+(aq)–64.0–46.4–159
nitrogen
N2(g)00191.6
N(g)472.704455.5153.3
NO(g)90.2587.6210.8
NO2(g)33.251.30240.1
N2O(g)81.6103.7220.0
N2O3(g)83.72139.41312.17
NO3(aq)–205.0–108.7146.4
N2O4(g)11.199.8304.4
N2O5(g)11.3115.1355.7
NH3(g)–45.9–16.5192.8
NH4+(aq)–132.5–79.31113.4
N2H4(l)50.63149.43121.21
N2H4(g)95.4159.4238.5
NH4NO3(s)–365.56–183.87151.08
NH4Cl(s)–314.43–202.8794.6
NH4Br(s)–270.8–175.2113.0
NH4I(s)–201.4–112.5117.0
NH4NO2(s)–256.5
HNO3(l)–174.1–80.7155.6
HNO3(g)–133.9–73.5266.9
oxygen
O2(g)00205.2
O(g)249.17231.7161.1
O3(g)142.7163.2238.9
phosphorus
P4(s)00164.4
P4(g)58.9124.4280.0
P(g)314.64278.25163.19
PH3(g)5.413.5210.2
PCl3(g)–287.0–267.8311.78
PCl5(g)–374.9–305.0364.4
P4O6(s)–1640.1
P4O10(s)–2984.0–2697.0228.86
PO43–(aq)–1277–1019–222
HPO3(s)–948.5
HPO42–(aq)–1292.1–1089.3–33
H2PO42–(aq)–1296.3–1130.490.4
H3PO2(s)–604.6
H3PO3(s)–964.4
H3PO4(s)–1279.0–1119.1110.50
H3PO4(l)–1266.9–1124.3110.5
H4P2O7(s)–2241.0
POCl3(l)–597.1–520.8222.5
POCl3(g)–558.5–512.9325.5
potassium
K(s)0064.7
K(g)89.060.5160.3
K+(aq)–252.4–283.3102.5
KF(s)–576.27–537.7566.57
KCl(s)–436.5–408.582.6
rubidium
Rb+(aq)–246–282.2124
silicon
Si(s)0018.8
Si(g)450.0405.5168.0
SiO2(s)–910.7–856.341.5
SiH4(g)34.356.9204.6
H2SiO3(s)–1188.67–1092.44133.89
H4SiO4(s)–1481.14–1333.02192.46
SiF4(g)–1615.0–1572.8282.8
SiCl4(l)–687.0–619.8239.7
SiCl4(g)–662.75–622.58330.62
SiC(s, beta cubic)–73.22–70.7116.61
SiC(s, alpha hexagonal)–71.55–69.0416.48
silver
Ag(s)0042.55
Ag(g)284.9246.0172.89
Ag+(aq)105.677.1172.68
Ag2O(s)–31.05–11.20121.3
AgCl(s)–127.0–109.896.3
Ag2S(s)–32.6–40.7144.0
sodium
Na(s)0051.3
Na(g)107.577.0153.7
Na+(aq)–240.1–261.959
Na2O(s)–414.2–375.575.1
NaCl(s)–411.2–384.172.1
strontium
Sr2+(aq)–545.8–557.3–32.6
sulfur
S8(s) (rhombic)00256.8
S(g)278.81238.25167.82
S2–(aq)41.883.722
SO2(g)–296.83–300.1248.2
SO3(g)–395.72–371.06256.76
SO42–(aq)–909.3–744.520.1
S2O32–(aq)–648.5–522.567
H2S(g)–20.6–33.4205.8
HS(aq)–17.712.661.1
H2SO4(l)–813.989690.00156.90
HSO42–(aq)–885.75–752.87126.9
H2S2O7(s)–1273.6
SF4(g)–728.43–684.84291.12
SF6(g)–1220.5–1116.5291.5
SCl2(l)–50
SCl2(g)–19.7
S2Cl2(l)–59.4
S2Cl2(g)–19.50–29.25319.45
SOCl2(g)–212.55–198.32309.66
SOCl2(l)–245.6
SO2Cl2(l)–394.1
SO2Cl2(g)–354.80–310.45311.83
tin
Sn(s)0051.2
Sn(g)301.2266.2168.5
SnO(s)–285.8–256.956.5
SnO2(s)–577.6–515.849.0
SnCl4(l)–511.3–440.1258.6
SnCl4(g)–471.5–432.2365.8
titanium
Ti(s)0030.7
Ti(g)473.0428.4180.3
TiO2(s)–944.0–888.850.6
TiCl4(l)–804.2–737.2252.4
TiCl4(g)–763.2–726.3353.2
tungsten
W(s)0032.6
W(g)849.4807.1174.0
WO3(s)–842.9–764.075.9
zinc
Zn(s)0041.6
Zn(g)130.7395.14160.98
Zn2+(aq)–153.9–147.1–112.1
ZnO(s)–350.5–320.543.7
ZnCl2(s)–415.1–369.43111.5
ZnS(s)–206.0–201.357.7
ZnSO4(s)–982.8–871.5110.5
ZnCO3(s)–812.78–731.5782.42
complexes
[Co(NH3)4(NO2)2]NO3, cis–898.7
[Co(NH3)4(NO2)2]NO3, trans–896.2
NH4[Co(NH3)2(NO2)4]–837.6
[Co(NH3)6][Co(NH3)2(NO2)4]3–2733.0
[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl, cis–874.9
[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl, trans–877.4
[Co(en)2(NO2)2]NO3, cis–689.5
[Co(en)2Cl2]Cl, cis–681.2
[Co(en)2Cl2]Cl, trans–677.4
[Co(en)3](ClO4)3–762.7
[Co(en)3]Br2–595.8
[Co(en)3]I2–475.3
[Co(en)3]I3–519.2
[Co(NH3)6](ClO4)3–1034.7–221.1615
[Co(NH3)5NO2](NO3)2–1088.7–412.9331
[Co(NH3)6](NO3)3–1282.0–524.5448
[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2–1017.1–582.5366.1
[Pt(NH3)4]Cl2–725.5
[Ni(NH3)6]Cl2–994.1
[Ni(NH3)6]Br2–923.8
[Ni(NH3)6]I2–808.3

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