A sensory activation occurs when a physical or chemical stimulus is processed into a neural signal (sensory transduction) by a sensory receptor. Perception is an individual interpretation of a sensation and is a brain function. Humans have special senses: olfaction, gustation, equilibrium, and hearing, plus the general senses of somatosensation.
Sensory receptors are either specialized cells associated with sensory neurons or the specialized ends of sensory neurons that are a part of the peripheral nervous system, and they are used to receive information about the environment (internal or external). Each sensory receptor is modified for the type of stimulus it detects. For example, neither gustatory receptors nor auditory receptors are sensitive to light. Each sensory receptor is responsive to stimuli within a specific region in space, which is known as that receptor’s receptive field. The most fundamental function of a sensory system is the translation of a sensory signal to an electrical signal in the nervous system.
All sensory signals, except those from the olfactory system, enter the central nervous system and are routed to the thalamus. When the sensory signal exits the thalamus, it is conducted to the specific area of the cortex dedicated to processing that particular sense.
sense of body movement
sensory receptor modified to respond to mechanical disturbance such as being bent, touch, pressure, motion, and sound
individual interpretation of a sensation; a brain function
sense of limb position; used to track kinesthesia
receipt of a signal (such as light or sound) by sensory receptors
region in space in which a stimulus can activate a given sensory receptor
membrane potential in a sensory receptor in response to detection of a stimulus
specialized neuron or other cells associated with a neuron that is modified to receive specific sensory input
conversion of a sensory stimulus into electrical energy in the nervous system by a change in the membrane potential
sense of spatial orientation and balance