Biology » Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea » Prokaryotic Metabolism

Summarizing Prokaryotic Metabolism


Prokaryotes are the most metabolically diverse organisms; they flourish in many different environments with various carbon energy and carbon sources, variable temperature, pH, pressure, and water availability. Nutrients required in large amounts are called macronutrients, whereas those required in trace amounts are called micronutrients or trace elements. Macronutrients include C, H, O, N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca, and Na. In addition to these macronutrients, prokaryotes require various metallic elements for growth and enzyme function. Prokaryotes use different sources of energy to assemble macromolecules from smaller molecules. Phototrophs obtain their energy from sunlight, whereas chemotrophs obtain energy from chemical compounds.

Prokaryotes play roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Carbon is returned to the atmosphere by the respiration of animals and other chemoorganotrophic organisms. Consumers use organic compounds generated by producers and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The most important contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is microbial decomposition of dead material. Nitrogen is recycled in nature from organic compounds to ammonia, ammonium ions, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrogen gas. Gaseous nitrogen is transformed into ammonia through nitrogen fixation. Ammonia is anaerobically catabolized by some prokaryotes, yielding N2 as the final product. Nitrification is the conversion of ammonium into nitrite. Nitrification in soils is carried out by bacteria. Denitrification is also performed by bacteria and transforms nitrate from soils into gaseous nitrogen compounds, such as N2O, NO, and N2.



process by which ammonia is released during the decomposition of nitrogen-containing organic compounds


organism that obtains energy from chemical compounds


organism that carries out the decomposition of dead organisms


transformation of nitrate from soil to gaseous nitrogen compounds such as N2O, NO and N2


conversion of ammonium into nitrite and nitrate in soils

nitrogen fixation

process by which gaseous nitrogen is transformed, or “fixed” into more readily available forms such as ammonia

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