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The Two Parts of Photosynthesis

The Two Parts of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis takes place in two sequential stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light independent-reactions. In the light-dependent reactions, energy from sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and that energy is converted into stored chemical energy.

In the light-independent reactions, the chemical energy harvested during the light-dependent reactions drive the assembly of sugar molecules from carbon dioxide. Therefore, although the light-independent reactions do not use light as a reactant, they require the products of the light-dependent reactions to function.

In addition, several enzymes of the light-independent reactions are activated by light. The light-dependent reactions utilize certain molecules to temporarily store the energy: These are referred to as energy carriers. The energy carriers that move energy from light-dependent reactions to light-independent reactions can be thought of as “full” because they are rich in energy.

After the energy is released, the “empty” energy carriers return to the light-dependent reaction to obtain more energy. The figure below illustrates the components inside the chloroplast where the light-dependent and light-independent reactions take place.

This illustration shows a chloroplast with an outer membrane, an inner membrane, and stacks of membranes inside the inner membrane called thylakoids. The entire stack is called a granum. In the light reactions, energy from sunlight is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. In the process, water is used and oxygen is produced. Energy from ATP and NADPH are used to power the Calvin cycle, which produces GA3P from carbon dioxide. ATP is broken down to ADP and Pi, and NADPH is oxidized to NADP+. The cycle is completed when the light reactions convert these molecules back into ATP and NADPH.

Photosynthesis takes place in two stages: light dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle. Light-dependent reactions, which take place in the thylakoid membrane, use light energy to make ATP and NADPH. The Calvin cycle, which takes place in the stroma, uses energy derived from these compounds to make GA3P from CO2.

Everyday Connection: Photosynthesis at the Grocery Store

A photo shows people shopping in a grocery store.

Foods that humans consume originate from photosynthesis. (credit: Associação Brasileira de Supermercados)

Major grocery stores in the United States are organized into departments, such as dairy, meats, produce, bread, cereals, and so forth. Each aisle (see the figure above) contains hundreds, if not thousands, of different products for customers to buy and consume.

Although there is a large variety, each item links back to photosynthesis. Meats and dairy link, because the animals were fed plant-based foods. The breads, cereals, and pastas come largely from starchy grains, which are the seeds of photosynthesis-dependent plants.

What about desserts and drinks? All of these products contain sugar—sucrose is a plant product, a disaccharide, a carbohydrate molecule, which is built directly from photosynthesis. Moreover, many items are less obviously derived from plants: For instance, paper goods are generally plant products, and many plastics (abundant as products and packaging) are derived from algae.

Virtually every spice and flavoring in the spice aisle was produced by a plant as a leaf, root, bark, flower, fruit, or stem. Ultimately, photosynthesis connects to every meal and every food a person consumes.

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  • Hamad Munir

    thanks so much, I really very like your article because this article is very informative for me
    and is also provide very deep and correct information about light and light energy

    Reply
    Like
  • Hamad Munir

    thanks so much, I really very like your article because this article is very informative for me
    and is also provide very deep and correct information about light and light energy.

    Reply
    Like