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Control Rods

Control Rods

Nuclear reactors use control rods (see the figure below) to control the fission rate of the nuclear fuel by adjusting the number of slow neutrons present to keep the rate of the chain reaction at a safe level. Control rods are made of boron, cadmium, hafnium, or other elements that are able to absorb neutrons. Boron-10, for example, absorbs neutrons by a reaction that produces lithium-7 and alpha particles:

\({}_{\phantom{\rule{0.5em}{0ex}}5}^{10}\text{B}+{}_{0}^{1}\text{n}\;⟶\;{}_{3}^{7}\text{Li}+{}_{2}^{4}\text{He}\)

When control rod assemblies are inserted into the fuel element in the reactor core, they absorb a larger fraction of the slow neutrons, thereby slowing the rate of the fission reaction and decreasing the power produced. Conversely, if the control rods are removed, fewer neutrons are absorbed, and the fission rate and energy production increase. In an emergency, the chain reaction can be shut down by fully inserting all of the control rods into the nuclear core between the fuel rods.

Two diagrams are shown and labeled “a” and “b.” Diagram a shows a cut-away view of a vertical tube with a flat, horizontal plate near the bottom that connects to a series of vertical pipes lined up next to one another and labeled “Fuel rods.” A second horizontal plate labeled “Grid” lies at the top of the pipes and a second set of thinner, vertical pipes, labeled “Control rods,” leads from this plate to the top of the container. The walls of the container are labeled “Steel pressure vessel.” A blue, right-facing arrow leads from an entry point in the left side of the container and is followed by a second, down-facing blue arrow and a curved, right-facing arrow that trace along the outer, bottom edge of the container. A blue and red arrow follows these and faces up the right side of the container to an exit near the right face where a red, right-facing arrow leads out. Diagram b is a cut-away image of a vertical, rectangular, three dimensional set of vertical pipes. The pipes are labeled “Fuel rods” and are inserted into an upper and lower horizontal plate labeled “Grid.” Four thin rods extend above the pipes and are labeled “Control rods.

The nuclear reactor core shown in (a) contains the fuel and control rod assembly shown in (b). (credit: modification of work by E. Generalic, http://glossary.periodni.com/glossary.php?en=control+rod)

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