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Radiation Protection

Radiation Protection

Laws regulate radiation doses to which people can be exposed. The greatest occupational whole-body dose that is allowed depends upon the country and is about 20 to 50 mSv/y and is rarely reached by medical and nuclear power workers. Higher doses are allowed for the hands. Much lower doses are permitted for the reproductive organs and the fetuses of pregnant women. Inadvertent doses to the public are limited to \(1/\text{10}\) of occupational doses, except for those caused by nuclear power, which cannot legally expose the public to more than \(1/\text{1000}\) of the occupational limit or 0.05 mSv/y (5 mrem/y). This has been exceeded in the United States only at the time of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident in 1979. Chernobyl is another story. Extensive monitoring with a variety of radiation detectors is performed to assure radiation safety. Increased ventilation in uranium mines has lowered the dose there to about 1 mSv/y.

Background Radiation Sources and Average Doses

To physically limit radiation doses, we use shielding, increase the distance from a source, and limit the time of exposure.

This figure illustrates how these are used to protect both the patient and the dental technician when an x-ray is taken. Shielding absorbs radiation and can be provided by any material, including sufficient air. The greater the distance from the source, the more the radiation spreads out. The less time a person is exposed to a given source, the smaller is the dose received by the person. Doses from most medical diagnostics have decreased in recent years due to faster films that require less exposure time.

Typical Doses Received During Diagnostic X-ray Exams

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