Key Concepts and Summary
There are three tools for restricting the flow of trade: tariffs, import quotas, and nontariff barriers. When a country places limitations on imports from abroad, regardless of whether it uses tariffs, quotas, or nontariff barriers, it is said to be practicing protectionism. Protectionism will raise the price of the protected good in the domestic market, which causes domestic consumers to pay more, but domestic producers to earn more.
numerical limits on the quantity of products that can be imported
ways a nation can draw up rules, regulations, inspections, and paperwork to make it more costly or difficult to import products
government policies to reduce or block imports
World Trade Organization (WTO)
organization that seeks to negotiate reductions in barriers to trade and to adjudicate complaints about violations of international trade policy; successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)