On or off?
When it comes to genes, that is an important question. And if you’re a single-celled organism like a bacterium, conserving energy by not producing unnecessary proteins is very important.
Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
Transcription is regulated differently in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In general, prokaryotic regulation is simpler than eukaryotic regulation.
The Role of Operons
Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes typically involves operons. An operon is a region of DNA that consists of one or more genes that encode the proteins needed for a specific function. The operon also includes a promoter and an operator. The operator is a region of the operon where regulatory proteins bind. It is located near the promoter and helps regulate transcription of the operon genes.
The Lac Operon
A well-known example of operon regulation involves the lac operon in E. coli bacteria (see the figure below and the video at the link below). The lac operon consists of a promoter, an operator, and three genes that encode the enzymes needed to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk. The lac operon is regulated by lactose in the environment.
- When lactose is absent, a repressor protein binds to the operator. The operator is located between the promoter and the three lac operon genes. The protein blocks the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter. As a result, the lac genes are not expressed.
- When lactose is present, the repressor protein does not bind to the operator. This allows RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter and begin transcription. As a result, the lac genes are expressed, and lactose is digested.
Why might it be beneficial to express genes only when they are needed? (Hint: synthesizing proteins requires energy and materials.)
- Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes typically involves an operon, such as the lac operon in E. coli.
- The lac operon is regulated by proteins that behave differently depending on whether lactose is present or absent.