Biology » Ecology and the Biosphere » Terrestrial Biomes

Temperate Grasslands

Temperate Grasslands

Temperate grasslands are found throughout central North America, where they are also known as prairies; they are also in Eurasia, where they are known as steppes (see the figure below). Temperate grasslands have pronounced annual fluctuations in temperature with hot summers and cold winters. The annual temperature variation produces specific growing seasons for plants. Plant growth is possible when temperatures are warm enough to sustain plant growth and when ample water is available, which occurs in the spring, summer, and fall. During much of the winter, temperatures are low, and water, which is stored in the form of ice, is not available for plant growth.

 This world map shows the eight major biomes, polar ice, and mountains. Tropical forests, deserts and savannas are found primarily in South America, Africa, and Australia. Tropical forests also dominate Southeast Asia. Deserts dominate the Middle East and are found in the southwestern United States. Temperate forests dominate the eastern United States, Europe, and Eastern Asia. Temperate grasslands dominate the midwestern United States and parts of Asia, and are also found in South America. The boreal forest is found in northern Canada, Europe, and Asia, and tundra exists to the north of the boreal forest. Mountainous regions run the length of North and South America, and are found in northern India, Africa, and parts of Europe. Polar ice covers Greenland and Antarctica, which the latter is not shown on the map.

Each of the world’s major biomes is distinguished by characteristic temperatures and amounts of precipitation. Polar ice and mountains are also shown.

Annual precipitation ranges from 25 cm to 75 cm (9.8–29.5 in). Because of relatively lower annual precipitation in temperate grasslands, there are few trees except for those found growing along rivers or streams. The dominant vegetation tends to consist of grasses and some prairies sustain populations of grazing animals (see the figure below). The vegetation is very dense and the soils are fertile because the subsurface of the soil is packed with the roots and rhizomes (underground stems) of these grasses. The roots and rhizomes act to anchor plants into the ground and replenish the organic material (humus) in the soil when they die and decay.

 This photo shows a bison, which is dark brown in color with an even darker head. The hind part of the animal has short fur, and the front of the animal has longer, curly fur.

The American bison (Bison bison), more commonly called the buffalo, is a grazing mammal that once populated American prairies in huge numbers. (credit: Jack Dykinga, USDA Agricultural Research Service)

Fires, mainly caused by lightning, are a natural disturbance in temperate grasslands. When fire is suppressed in temperate grasslands, the vegetation eventually converts to scrub and dense forests. Often, the restoration or management of temperate grasslands requires the use of controlled burns to suppress the growth of trees and maintain the grasses.

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