Nigeria has a population of over 180 million people, and this number is increasing every year. Therefore, maintaining healthy crops plays an important role in providing enough food for the nation. This is also true in other parts of Africa and the world at large. Fertilizers are used to provide sufficient nutrients to the soil in order to sustain optimum crop yields. The fertilizer industry is therefore an important chemical industry in Nigeria. In this tutorial, we will investigate what fertilizers are, why they are important, how they are produced and what their impact on the environment is.