Sir Joseph John Thomson OM PRS was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
Thomson’s Model of the Atom
After the electron was discovered by J.J. Thomson in 1897, people realised that atoms were made up of even smaller particles than they had previously thought. However, the atomic nucleus had not been discovered yet and so the “plum pudding model” was put forward in 1904. In this model, the atom is made up of negative electrons that float in a “soup” of positive charge, much like plums in a pudding or raisins in a fruit cake (see the figure below). In 1906, Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in this field. However, even with the Plum Pudding Model, there was still no understanding of how these electrons in the atom were arranged.
The discovery of radiation was the next step along the path to building an accurate picture of atomic structure. In the early twentieth century, Marie and Pierre Curie, discovered that some elements (the radioactive elements) emit particles, which are able to pass through matter in a similar way to X–rays (read more about this in Grade 11). It was Ernest Rutherford who, in 1911, used this discovery to revise the model of the atom.
Did You Know?
Two other models proposed for the atom were the cubic model and the Saturnian model. In the cubic model, the electrons were imagined to lie at the corners of a cube. In the Saturnian model, the electrons were imagined to orbit a very big, heavy nucleus.