Chemistry » Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry » Quantitative Chemical Analysis

Glossary of Words

Summary and Key Ideas

Quantitative Chemical Analysis

The stoichiometry of chemical reactions may serve as the basis for quantitative chemical analysis methods. Titrations involve measuring the volume of a titrant solution required to completely react with a sample solution. This volume is then used to calculate the concentration of analyte in the sample using the stoichiometry of the titration reaction.

Gravimetric analysis involves separating the analyte from the sample by a physical or chemical process, determining its mass, and then calculating its concentration in the sample based on the stoichiometry of the relevant process. Combustion analysis is a gravimetric method used to determine the elemental composition of a compound by collecting and weighing the gaseous products of its combustion.

Glossary

Analyte

chemical species of interest

Buret

device used for the precise delivery of variable liquid volumes, such as in a titration analysis

Combustion analysis

gravimetric technique used to determine the elemental composition of a compound via the collection and weighing of its gaseous combustion products

End point

measured volume of titrant solution that yields the change in sample solution appearance or other property expected for stoichiometric equivalence (see equivalence point)

Equivalence point

volume of titrant solution required to react completely with the analyte in a titration analysis; provides a stoichiometric amount of titrant for the sample’s analyte according to the titration reaction

Gravimetric analysis

quantitative chemical analysis method involving the separation of an analyte from a sample by a physical or chemical process and subsequent mass measurements of the analyte, reaction product, and/or sample

Indicator

substance added to the sample in a titration analysis to permit visual detection of the end point

Quantitative analysis

the determination of the amount or concentration of a substance in a sample

Titrant

solution containing a known concentration of substance that will react with the analyte in a titration analysis

Titration analysis

quantitative chemical analysis method that involves measuring the volume of a reactant solution required to completely react with the analyte in a sample

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