Summary of lessons so far
The unique properties of carbon make it a central part of biological molecules. Carbon binds to oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen covalently to form the many molecules important for cellular function. Carbon has four electrons in its outermost shell and can form four bonds.
Recall that carbon and hydrogen can form hydrocarbon chains or rings. Functional groups are groups of atoms that confer specific properties to hydrocarbon (or substituted hydrocarbon) chains or rings that define their overall chemical characteristics and function.
Glossary of Words
hydrocarbon consisting of a linear chain of carbon atoms
hydrocarbon consisting of closed rings of carbon atoms
molecules that share overall structure and bonding patterns, but differ in how the atoms are three dimensionally placed such that they are mirror images of each other
group of atoms that provides or imparts a specific function to a carbon skeleton
isomer with similar bonding patterns differing in the placement of atoms alongside a double covalent bond
molecule that consists only of carbon and hydrogen
molecules that differ from one another even though they share the same chemical formula
any molecule containing carbon (except carbon dioxide)
molecules that share a chemical formula but differ in the placement of their chemical bonds
hydrocarbon chain or ring containing an atom of another element in place of one of the backbone carbons