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Metabolism of Carbohydrates

Metabolism of Carbohydrates

The metabolism of sugar (a simple carbohydrate) is a classic example of the many cellular processes that use and produce energy. Living things consume sugar as a major energy source, because sugar molecules have a great deal of energy stored within their bonds. The breakdown of glucose, a simple sugar, is described by the equation:

\(\mathrm{C}_6\mathrm{H}_{12}\mathrm{O}_6 + 6\mathrm{O}_2 \)\(\rightarrow 6\mathrm{CO}_2 + 6\mathrm{H}_2\mathrm{O} + \mathrm{energy}\)

Carbohydrates that are consumed have their origins in photosynthesizing organisms like plants (see image below). During photosynthesis, plants use the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide gas (CO2) into sugar molecules, like glucose (C6H12O6). Because this process involves synthesizing a larger, energy-storing molecule, it requires an input of energy to proceed. The synthesis of glucose is described by this equation (notice that it is the reverse of the previous equation):

\(6\mathrm{CO}_2 + 6\mathrm{H}_2\mathrm{O} + \mathrm{energy} \)\(\rightarrow \mathrm{C}_6\mathrm{H}_{12}\mathrm{O}_6 + 6\mathrm{O}_2\)

acorn-and-squirrel

Plants, like this oak tree and acorn, use energy from sunlight to make sugar and other organic molecules. Both plants and animals (like this squirrel) use cellular respiration to derive energy from the organic molecules originally produced by plants. Image credit “acorn”: modification of work by Noel Reynolds; “squirrel”: modification of work by Dawn Huczek

During the chemical reactions of photosynthesis, energy is provided in the form of a very high-energy molecule. We refer to this molecule as ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. As a matter of fact, ATP is the primary energy currency of all cells. Just as the dollar is used as currency to buy goods, cells use molecules of ATP as energy currency to perform immediate work. The sugar (glucose) is stored as starch or glycogen. Energy-storing polymers like these are broken down into glucose to supply molecules of ATP.

Using solar energy to synthesize glucose

Solar energy is required to synthesize a molecule of glucose during the reactions of photosynthesis. In photosynthesis, light energy from the sun is initially transformed into chemical energy. This chemical energy is temporally stored in the energy carrier molecules ATP and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). The stored energy in ATP and NADPH is then used later in photosynthesis to build one molecule of glucose from six molecules of CO2. This process is analogous to eating breakfast in the morning to acquire energy for your body that can be used later in the day.

Under ideal conditions, energy from 18 molecules of ATP is required to synthesize one molecule of glucose during the reactions of photosynthesis. Glucose molecules can also be combined with and converted into other types of sugars. When sugars are consumed, molecules of glucose eventually make their way into each living cell of the organism. Inside the cell, each sugar molecule is broken down through a complex series of chemical reactions. The goal of these reactions is to harvest the energy stored inside the sugar molecules. The harvested energy is used to make high-energy ATP molecules. Cells can then use these molecules to perform work, powering many chemical cellular reactions.

The amount of energy needed to make one molecule of glucose from six molecules of carbon dioxide is 18 molecules of ATP and 12 molecules of NADPH (each one of which is energetically equivalent to three molecules of ATP), or a total of 54 molecule equivalents required for the synthesis of one molecule of glucose. This process is a fundamental and efficient way for cells to generate the molecular energy that they require. We will look at the process of photosynthesis in greater detail in future lessons.

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