Key Concepts and Summary
The characteristic properties of aqueous solutions of Brønsted-Lowry acids are due to the presence of hydronium ions; those of aqueous solutions of Brønsted-Lowry bases are due to the presence of hydroxide ions. The neutralization that occurs when aqueous solutions of acids and bases are combined results from the reaction of the hydronium and hydroxide ions to form water. Some salts formed in neutralization reactions may make the product solutions slightly acidic or slightly basic.
Solutions that contain salts or hydrated metal ions have a pH that is determined by the extent of the hydrolysis of the ions in the solution. The pH of the solutions may be calculated using familiar equilibrium techniques, or it may be qualitatively determined to be acidic, basic, or neutral depending on the relative Ka and Kb of the ions involved.