DIRECTIONS Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For som...
Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole. After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
A total of 11 questions are based on the following passage.
Investigative Journalism: An Evolving American Tradition
 The recent precipitous decline of print journalism as a viable profession has exacerbated long-held concerns about the state of investigative reporting in the United States.  Facing lower print circulation and diminished advertising revenue, many major newspapers have reduced or eliminated investigative resources.  Newspapers, the traditional nurturing ground for investigative journalism, have been hit especially hard by the widespread availability of free news online.  To survive, investigative journalism must continue to adapt to the digital age. [Q1]
It is not difficult to understand why a cash-strapped, understaffed publication might feel pressure to cut teams of investigative [Q2]reporter’s—their work is expensive and time-consuming. [Q3]Taking on the public interest, investigative journalism involves original, often long-form reporting on such topics as [Q4]illegal activities, street crime, corporate wrongdoing, and political corruption. An investigative story involves one or more experienced journalists dedicating their full energy and the resources of the publisher to a piece for a prolonged period of time. Expensive legal battles may ensue. The results of this work, though costly, have helped keep those in power accountable. The exposure by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of government misconduct in the Watergate scandal resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974. More recently, Seymour Hersh, reporting for the New Yorker in 2004, helped publicize the mistreatment of Iraqi prisoners by US personnel at Abu Ghraib during the Iraq War. [Q5] In these and other cases, exposure from reporters has served as an important [Q6] blockade to or scolding of malfeasance.
While worrisome, the decline of traditional print media [Q7] could not entail the end of investigative journalism. [Q8] Although many newsrooms have reduced their staff, some still employ investigative reporters. Nonprofit [Q9] enterprises such as the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project have begun to fill the void created by staff losses at newspapers and magazines. Enterprising freelance reporters, newly funded by nonprofits, make extensive use of social media, including blogs and Twitter, to foster a public conversation about key issues. The Help Me Investigate project, [Q10] for example, solicited readers to submit tips and information related to ongoing stories to its website. Far from marking the end of investigative journalism, [Q11] cooperation among journalists and ordinary citizens has been facilitated by the advent of the digital age through an increase in the number of potential investigators.
What will be the most pertinent answer to Q11?
The correct answer is C.
Choice C is the best answer because the full subject of the independent clause, “the advent of the digital age,” directly follows the dependent clause that introduces it.
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because the subjects of their independent clauses do not directly follow the introductory dependent clause. “Far from marking the end of investigative journalism” refers to the “advent of the digital age,” not to “cooperation among journalists” (choice A) or “the number of potential investigators” (choice B). In choice D, an interrupting phrase (“by facilitating cooperation among journalists and ordinary citizens”) separates the subject from the dependent clause that modifies it.
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