DIRECTIONS Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For som...
Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole. After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
A total of 10 are based on the following passage.
Shed Some Light on the Workplace
Studies have shown that employees are happier, [Q1]healthier, and more productive when they work in an environment [Q2] in which temperatures are carefully controlled. New buildings may be designed with these studies in mind, but many older buildings were not, resulting in spaces that often depend primarily on artificial lighting. While employers may balk at the expense of reconfiguring such buildings to increase the amount of natural light, the investment has been shown to be well worth it in the long run—for both employees and employers.
For one thing, lack of exposure to natural light has a significant impact on employees’ health. A study conducted in 2013 by Northwestern University in Chicago showed that inadequate natural light could result in eye strain, headaches, and fatigue, as well as interference with the body’s circadian rhythms. [Q3] Circadian rhythms, which are controlled by the [Q4] bodies biological clocks, influence body temperature, hormone release, cycles of sleep and wakefulness, and other bodily functions. Disruptions of circadian rhythms have been linked to sleep disorders, diabetes, depression, and bipolar disorder. Like any other health problems, these ailments can increase employee absenteeism, which, in turn, [Q5] is costly for employers. Employees who feel less than 100 percent and are sleep deprived are also less prone to work at their maximal productivity. One company in California [Q6] gained a huge boost in its employees’ morale when it moved from an artificially lit distribution facility to one with natural illumination.
[Q7] Artificial light sources are also costly aside from lowering worker productivity. They typically constitute anywhere from 25 to 50 percent of a building’s energy use. When a plant in Seattle, Washington, was redesigned for more natural light, the company was able to enjoy annual electricity cost reductions of $500,000 [Q8] each year.
Among the possibilities to reconfigure a building’s lighting is the installation of full-pane windows to allow the greatest degree of sunlight to reach office interiors. [Q9] Thus, businesses can install light tubes, [Q10] these are pipes placed in workplace roofs to capture and funnel sunlight down into a building’s interior. Glass walls and dividers can also be used to replace solid walls as a means [Q11] through distributing natural light more freely. Considering the enormous costs of artificial lighting, both in terms of money and productivity, investment in such improvements should be a natural choice for businesses.
What will be the most pertinent answer to Q9?
The correct answer is C.
Choice C is the best answer. It provides a transitional adverb that accurately communicates that this sentence describes an option that companies could choose (“light tubes”) instead of the option described in the previous sentence (“full-pane windows”).
Choices A, B, and D are incorrect because each proposes a transitional adverb that does not accurately reflect the relationship between this sentence and the one preceding it.
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