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Question 1

A total of 11 questions are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

This passage is adapted from Francis J. Flynn and Gabrielle S. Adams, "Money Can't Buy Love: Asymmetric Beliefs about Gift Price and Feelings of Appreciation." ©2008 by Elsevier Inc.

Every day, millions of shoppers hit the stores infull force—both online and on foot—searchingfrantically for the perfect gift. Last year, Americansspent over $30 billion at retail stores in the month of
5 December alone. Aside from purchasing holidaygifts, most people regularly buy presents for other
occasions throughout the year, including weddings,
birthdays, anniversaries, graduations, and baby
showers. This frequent experience of gift-giving can
10 engender ambivalent feelings in gift-givers. Many
relish the opportunity to buy presents because
gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger
bonds with one’s closest peers. At the same time,
many dread the thought of buying gifts; they worry
15 that their purchases will disappoint rather than
delight the intended recipients.
Anthropologists describe gift-giving as a positive
social process, serving various political, religious, and
psychological functions. Economists, however, offer
20 a less favorable view. According to Waldfogel (1993),
gift-giving represents an objective waste of resources.
People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to
buy on their own, or at least not spend as much
money to purchase (a phenomenon referred to as
25 ‘‘the deadweight loss of Christmas”). To wit, givers
are likely to spend $100 to purchase a gift that
receivers would spend only $80 to buy themselves.
This ‘‘deadweight loss” suggests that gift-givers arenot very good at predicting what gifts others will
30 appreciate. That in itself is not surprising to social
psychologists. Research has found that people often
struggle to take account of others’ perspectives—
their insights are subject to egocentrism, social
projection, and multiple attribution errors.
35 What is surprising is that gift-givers have
considerable experience acting as both gift-givers and
gift-recipients, but nevertheless tend to overspend
each time they set out to purchase a meaningful gift.
In the present research, we propose a unique
40 psychological explanation for this overspending
problem—i.e., that gift-givers equate how much they
spend with how much recipients will appreciate the
gift (the more expensive the gift, the stronger a
gift-recipient’s feelings of appreciation). Although a
45 link between gift price and feelings of appreciation
might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an
assumption may be unfounded. Indeed, we propose
that gift-recipients will be less inclined to base their
feelings of appreciation on the magnitude of a gift
50 than givers assume.
Why do gift-givers assume that gift price is closely
linked to gift-recipients’ feelings of appreciation?
Perhaps givers believe that bigger (i.e., more
expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of
55 thoughtfulness and consideration.According to
Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a
symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal
their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient
and their willingness to invest resources in a future
60 relationship. In this sense, gift-givers may bemotivated to spend more money on a gift in order to
send a “stronger signal” to their intended recipient.
As for gift-recipients, they may not construe smaller
and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger
65 signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.
The notion of gift-givers and gift-recipients being
unable to account for the other party’s perspectives
seems puzzling because people slip in and out of
these roles every day, and, in some cases, multiple
70 times in the course of the same day. Yet, despite the
extensive experience that people have as both givers
and receivers, they often struggle to transfer
information gained from one role (e.g., as a giver)
and apply it in another, complementary role (e.g., as
75 a receiver). In theoretical terms, people fail to utilize
information about their own preferences and
experiences in order to produce more efficient
outcomes in their exchange relations. In practical
terms, people spend hundreds of dollars each year on
80 gifts, but somehow never learn to calibrate their gift
expenditures according to personal insight.

(1 of 11) The authors most likely use the examples in lines 1-9 of the passage (“Every . . . showers”) to highlight the

Options

A)
regularity with which people shop for gifts.
B)
recent increase in the amount of money spent on recent increase in the amount of money spent on recent increase in the amount of money spent on gifts.
C)
anxiety gift shopping causes for consumers.
D)
number of special occasions involving gift-giving.
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Question 2

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(1 of 10) Which choice best describes what happens in the passage?

Options

A)
One character argues with another character who intrudes on her home.
B)
One character receives a surprising request from another character.
C)
One character reminisces about choices she has made over the years
D)
One character criticizes another character for pursuing an unexpected course of action.
Post Comment

Question 3

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(3 of 10) As used in line 1 and line 65, “directly” most nearly means

Options

A)
frankly.
B)
confidently.
C)
without mediation.
D)
with precision.
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Question 4

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(4 of 10) Which reaction does Akira most fear from Chie?

Options

A)
She will consider his proposal inappropriate.
B)
She will mistake his earnestness for immaturity.
C)
She will consider his unscheduled visit an imposition.
D)
She will underestimate the sincerity of his emotions.
Post Comment

Question 5

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(5 of 10) Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

Options

A)
Line 33 (“His voice . . . refined”)
B)
Lines 49-51 (“You . . . mind”)
C)
Lines 63-64 (“Please . . . proposal”)
D)
Lines 71-72 (“Eager . . . face”)
Post Comment

Question 6

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(6/10) In the passage, Akira addresses Chie with

Options

A)
affection but not genuine love.
B)
objectivity but not complete impartiality.
C)
amusement but not mocking disparagement.
D)
respect but not utter deference.
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Question 7

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(7 of 10) The main purpose of the first paragraph is to

Options

A)
describe a culture.
B)
criticize a tradition.
C)
question a suggestion.
D)
analyze a reaction.
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Question 8

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(8 of 10) As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means

Options

A)
appearance.
B)
custom.
C)
structure.
D)
nature.
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Question 9

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(9 of 10) Why does Akira say his meeting with Chie is “a matter of urgency” (line 32)?

Options

A)
He fears that his own parents will disapprove of Naomi.
B)
He worries that Naomi will reject him and marry someone else.
C)
He has been offered an attractive job in another country.
D)
He knows that Chie is unaware of his feelings for Naomi.
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Question 10

A total of 10 questions are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of
Beauty. ©1999 by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in
1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the
House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was
that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his
mother to speak to his father to approach a
go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?

5 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the
door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda,
so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid
knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps,
the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a
10 calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she
was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at
a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt
spread over the sides of the table so their legs were
15 tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie
questioned as she picked the name card off the
maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
20 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft
intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early
twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black
25 military-style uniform of a student. As he
bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a
black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the
other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening
surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving
30 stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption,
but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and
stole a deferential peek at her face.
35 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity.
Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely
your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would
40 approach you more properly but I’ve received word
of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as
dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement.
“That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I
45 involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the
name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message,
delivered like a formal speech, filled her with
maternal amusement. You know how children speak
50 so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about
things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?
That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though
Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts
55 needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no
effort to find her a husband.
Akira blushed.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in
Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
60 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night.
“Does Naomi know anything of your...
ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge
my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal.
65 I ask directly because the use of a go-between takes
much time. Either method comes down to the same
thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your
consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the
House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to
70 America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full
in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see
I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no
more of your evening. My address is on my card. If
75 you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you
in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless
grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and
80 turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows
gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were
preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He
85 thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to
America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute
looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.
90 “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then
stopped.
“Mother.”
“Yes?”
95 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her
family’s name

(10 of 10) Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

Options

A)
Line 39 (“I don’t . . . you”)
B)
Lines 39-42 (“Normally . . . community”)
C)
Lines 58-59 (“Depending . . . Japan”)
D)
Lines 72-73 (“I see . . . you”)
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