Biology » Plant Reproduction » Pollination and Fertilization

Summarizing Pollination and Fertilization


For fertilization to occur in angiosperms, pollen has to be transferred to the stigma of a flower: a process known as pollination. Gymnosperm pollination involves the transfer of pollen from a male cone to a female cone. When the pollen of the flower is transferred to the stigma of the same flower, it is called self-pollination.

Cross-pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from one flower to another flower on the same plant, or another plant. Cross-pollination requires pollinating agents such as water, wind, or animals, and increases genetic diversity. After the pollen lands on the stigma, the tube cell gives rise to the pollen tube, through which the generative nucleus migrates. The pollen tube gains entry through the micropyle on the ovule sac.

The generative cell divides to form two sperm cells: one fuses with the egg to form the diploid zygote, and the other fuses with the polar nuclei to form the endosperm, which is triploid in nature. This is known as double fertilization. After fertilization, the zygote divides to form the embryo and the fertilized ovule forms the seed. The walls of the ovary form the fruit in which the seeds develop. The seed, when mature, will germinate under favorable conditions and give rise to the diploid sporophyte.


accessory fruit

fruit derived from tissues other than the ovary

aggregate fruit

fruit that develops from multiple carpels in the same flower


single layer of cells just inside the seed coat that secretes enzymes upon germination


covering of the shoot tip, found in germinating monocot seeds


covering of the root tip, found in germinating monocot seeds


fleshy part of seed that provides nutrition to the seed


transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of a different flower


period of no growth and very slow metabolic processes

double fertilization

two fertilization events in angiosperms; one sperm fuses with the egg, forming the zygote, whereas the other sperm fuses with the polar nuclei, forming endosperm


innermost part of fruit


triploid structure resulting from fusion of a sperm with polar nuclei, which serves as a nutritive tissue for embryo

endospermic dicot

dicot that stores food reserves in the endosperm


outermost covering of a fruit


embryonic shoot above the cotyledons


response of a plant growth in the same direction as gravity


embryonic axis above the cotyledons


middle part of a fruit

multiple fruit

fruit that develops from multiple flowers on an inflorescence

nectar guide

pigment pattern on a flower that guides an insect to the nectaries

non-endospermic dicot

dicot that stores food reserves in the developing cotyledon


collective term describing the exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp; the structure that encloses the seed and is a part of the fruit


shoot that develops from the germinating seed


transfer of pollen to the stigma


original root that develops from the germinating seed


mechanical or chemical processes to soften the seed coat


type of cotyledon found in monocots, as in grass seeds


transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of same flower

simple fruit

fruit that develops from a single carpel or fused carpels


part of the growing embryo that makes connection with the maternal tissues


inner layer of the seed coat


outer layer of the seed coat


exposure to cold required by some seeds before they can germinate

Continue With the Mobile App | Available on Google Play

[Attributions and Licenses]

This is a lesson from the tutorial, Plant Reproduction and you are encouraged to log in or register, so that you can track your progress.

Log In

Share Thoughts