Biology » Gene Expression » Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation

Summarizing Eukaryotic Translational and Post-Translational Gene Regulation


Changing the status of the RNA or the protein itself can affect the amount of protein, the function of the protein, or how long it is found in the cell. To translate the protein, a protein initiator complex must assemble on the RNA. Modifications (such as phosphorylation) of proteins in this complex can prevent proper translation from occurring. Once a protein has been synthesized, it can be modified (phosphorylated, acetylated, methylated, or ubiquitinated). These post-translational modifications can greatly impact the stability, degradation, or function of the protein.


eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2)

protein that binds first to an mRNA to initiate translation

guanine diphosphate (GDP)

molecule that is left after the energy is used to start translation

guanine triphosphate (GTP)

energy-providing molecule that binds to eIF-2 and is needed for translation

initiation complex

protein complex containing eIF2-2 that starts translation

large 60S ribosomal subunit

second, larger ribosomal subunit that binds to the RNA to translate it into protein


organelle that degrades proteins

small 40S ribosomal subunit

ribosomal subunit that binds to the RNA to translate it into protein

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