Chemistry » Electronic Structure of Atoms » Periodic Variations in Element Properties

Glossary of Words


covalent radius

one-half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms when they are joined by a covalent bond

effective nuclear charge

charge that leads to the Coulomb force exerted by the nucleus on an electron, calculated as the nuclear charge minus shielding

electron affinity

energy required to add an electron to a gaseous atom to form an anion

ionization energy

energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. The associated number (e.g., second ionization energy) corresponds to the charge of the ion produced (X2+)


group of ions or atoms that have identical electron configurations

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