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Dissociation of Sodium Chloride in Water – Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Dissociation of Sodium Chloride in Water It is the polar nature of water that allows ionic compounds to dissolve in it. In the case of sodium chloride (\(\text{NaCl}\)) for example, the positive sodium ions (\(\text{Na}^{+}\)) are attracted to the negative pole of the water molecule, while the negative chloride ions (\(\text{Cl}^{-}\)) are attracted to the ...

Dissociation in Water – Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Dissociation in Water Water is a polar molecule. If we represent water using Lewis structures we will get the following: You will notice that there are two electron pairs that do not take part in bonding. This side of the water molecule has a higher electron density than the other side where the hydrogen atoms ...

Summarizing Superconductivity – Condensed Matter Physics

Summary A superconductor is characterized by two features: the conduction of electrons with zero electrical resistance and the repelling of magnetic field lines. A minimum temperature is required for superconductivity to occur. A strong magnetic field destroys superconductivity. Superconductivity can be explain in terms of Cooper pairs. Key Equations Electrostatic energy for equilibrium separation distance ...

Summarizing Bonding in Crystalline Solids – Condensed Matter Physics

Summary Packing structures of common ionic salts include FCC and BCC. The density of a crystal is inversely related to the equilibrium constant. The dissociation energy of a salt is large when the equilibrium separation distance is small. The densities and equilibrium radii for common salts (FCC) are nearly the same. Glossary body-centered cubic (BCC) ...

Covalent and Metallic Bonding in Solids – Condensed Matter Physics

Covalent and Metallic Bonding in Solids Crystals can also be formed by covalent bonding. For example, covalent bonds are responsible for holding carbon atoms together in diamond crystals. The electron configuration of the carbon atom is \(1{s}^{2}2{s}^{2}2{p}^{2}\)—a He core plus four valence electrons. This electron configuration is four electrons short of a full shell, so ...

Ionic Bonding in Solids – Condensed Matter Physics

Ionic Bonding in Solids Many solids form by ionic bonding. A prototypical example is the sodium chloride crystal, as we discussed earlier. Electrons transfer from sodium atoms to adjacent chlorine atoms, since the valence electrons in sodium are loosely bound and chlorine has a large electron affinity. The positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged ...

Summarizing Types of Molecular Bonds – Condensed Matter Physics

Summary Molecules form by two main types of bonds: the ionic bond and the covalent bond. An ionic bond transfers an electron from one atom to another, and a covalent bond shares the electrons. The energy change associated with ionic bonding depends on three main processes: the ionization of an electron from one atom, the ...

Types of Bonds – Condensed Matter Physics

Types of Bonds Chemical units form by many different kinds of chemical bonds. An ionic bond forms when an electron transfers from one atom to another. A covalent bond occurs when two or more atoms share electrons. A van der Waals bond occurs due to the attraction of charge-polarized molecules and is considerably weaker than ...

Summarizing Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids – The Respiratory System

Summary Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that is comprised of two alpha and two beta subunits that surround an iron-containing heme group. Oxygen readily binds this heme group. The ability of oxygen to bind increases as more oxygen molecules are bound to heme. Disease states and altered conditions in the body ...

Transport of Oxygen in the Blood – The Respiratory System

Once the oxygen diffuses across the alveoli, it enters the bloodstream and is transported to the tissues where it is unloaded, and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood and into the alveoli to be expelled from the body. Although gas exchange is a continuous process, the oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported by different ...